open access

Vol 26, No 5 (2019)
Original articles — Clinical cardiology
Published online: 2018-01-25
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How does the risk of cardiovascular death and cardiovascular risk factor profiles differ between socioeconomic classes in Poland: A country in transition

Pawel Nadrowski, Ewa Podolecka, Andrzej Pajak, Agnieszka Dorynska, Wojciech Drygas, Wojciech Bielecki, Magdalena Kwasniewska, Andrzej Tykarski, Arkadiusz Niklas, Tomasz Zdrojewski, Michal Skrzypek, Wojciech Wojakowski, Krystyna Kozakiewicz
DOI: 10.5603/CJ.a2018.0003
·
Pubmed: 29570212
·
Cardiol J 2019;26(5):493-502.

open access

Vol 26, No 5 (2019)
Original articles — Clinical cardiology
Published online: 2018-01-25

Abstract

Background: Socioeconomic status (SES) is an important factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) development. A decline in death rate from CVD among subjects with high SES is observed in developed countries. The aim of this study was to assess differences in cardiovascular risk (CV) between socioeconomic classes in Poland, a country currently in transition.


Methods: A sample of 15,200 people was drawn. A three stage selection was performed. Eventually, 6170 patients were examined (2013/2014). Data was collected using a questionnaire in face-to-face interviews, anthropometric data and blood tests were also obtained. Education was categorized as
incomplete secondary, secondary and higher than secondary school. Monthly income per person was categorized as low (≤ 1000 PLN), medium (1001–2000 PLN) and high (≥ 2001 PLN). Education and income groups were analyzed by prevalence of CVD risk factors and high CVD risk (SCORE ≥ 5%).


Results: Higher education was associated with lower prevalence of all analyzed CVD risk factors (p < 0.001), having the highest income with lower prevalence of hypertension, currently smoking, obesity and lower high density lipoprotein cholesterol. Multivariable analysis showed that frequency of high CVD risk decreased with increasing education level (OR 0.61; 95% CI 0.49–0.76; p < 0.01), a similar favorable impact of higher income on high CVD risk was demonstrated in the whole group (OR 0.81; 95% CI 0.67–0.99; p = 0.04).


Conclusions: Socioeconomic status is an independent predictor of high CV risk of death. A favorable impact on the prevalence of high CV risk was demonstrated for education and partly for income in the whole group. It may reflect a transition being undergone in Poland, moreover, it predicts how socioeconomic factors may generate health inequalities in other transitioning countries.

Abstract

Background: Socioeconomic status (SES) is an important factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) development. A decline in death rate from CVD among subjects with high SES is observed in developed countries. The aim of this study was to assess differences in cardiovascular risk (CV) between socioeconomic classes in Poland, a country currently in transition.


Methods: A sample of 15,200 people was drawn. A three stage selection was performed. Eventually, 6170 patients were examined (2013/2014). Data was collected using a questionnaire in face-to-face interviews, anthropometric data and blood tests were also obtained. Education was categorized as
incomplete secondary, secondary and higher than secondary school. Monthly income per person was categorized as low (≤ 1000 PLN), medium (1001–2000 PLN) and high (≥ 2001 PLN). Education and income groups were analyzed by prevalence of CVD risk factors and high CVD risk (SCORE ≥ 5%).


Results: Higher education was associated with lower prevalence of all analyzed CVD risk factors (p < 0.001), having the highest income with lower prevalence of hypertension, currently smoking, obesity and lower high density lipoprotein cholesterol. Multivariable analysis showed that frequency of high CVD risk decreased with increasing education level (OR 0.61; 95% CI 0.49–0.76; p < 0.01), a similar favorable impact of higher income on high CVD risk was demonstrated in the whole group (OR 0.81; 95% CI 0.67–0.99; p = 0.04).


Conclusions: Socioeconomic status is an independent predictor of high CV risk of death. A favorable impact on the prevalence of high CV risk was demonstrated for education and partly for income in the whole group. It may reflect a transition being undergone in Poland, moreover, it predicts how socioeconomic factors may generate health inequalities in other transitioning countries.

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Keywords

socioeconomic; education; income; cardiovascular risk factors; cardiovascular disease

About this article
Title

How does the risk of cardiovascular death and cardiovascular risk factor profiles differ between socioeconomic classes in Poland: A country in transition

Journal

Cardiology Journal

Issue

Vol 26, No 5 (2019)

Pages

493-502

Published online

2018-01-25

DOI

10.5603/CJ.a2018.0003

Pubmed

29570212

Bibliographic record

Cardiol J 2019;26(5):493-502.

Keywords

socioeconomic
education
income
cardiovascular risk factors
cardiovascular disease

Authors

Pawel Nadrowski
Ewa Podolecka
Andrzej Pajak
Agnieszka Dorynska
Wojciech Drygas
Wojciech Bielecki
Magdalena Kwasniewska
Andrzej Tykarski
Arkadiusz Niklas
Tomasz Zdrojewski
Michal Skrzypek
Wojciech Wojakowski
Krystyna Kozakiewicz

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