Current and future role of echocardiography in arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy
Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy (ARVD/C) is an inherited progressive cardiomyopathy, clinically characterized by ventricular arrhythmias and increased risk of sudden cardiac death. Echocardiography has a role in the diagnosis and prognosis of ARVD/C. However, in the current era of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the role of echocardiography in ARVD/C patients and family member screening is subject to debate. Relatively novel echocardiographic techniques, such as three-dimensional right ventricular (3D-RV) imaging and tissue deformation imaging, may improve the diagnostic and prognostic performance of echocardiography in these patients. 3D-RV imaging provides more insights on RV anatomy and global function compared to conventional echocardiography. Subtle RV regional wall motion abnormalities, and mechanical dyssynchrony, are accurately measured by tissue deformation imaging. Several studies suggest an incremental value of novel echocardiographic parameters in addition to conventional measurements. Moreover, new parameters indicating subtle RV dysfunction, and mechanical dyssynchrony, are of predictive value and could help in risk stratification of ARVD/C patients. New robust parameters, derived from 3D-RV echocardiography and RV tissue deformation imaging, in combination with established conventional parameters, suggest that there is a current and future role for echocardiography in ARVD/C supplementing MRI.
Keywords: ARVD/Cechocardiographytissue deformation imagingthree- -dimensional echocardiographyprognosisdiagnosis