open access

Vol 21, No 5 (2014)
Original articles
Published online: 2014-10-29
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Neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio predicts short- and long-term mortality following revascularization therapy for ST elevation myocardial infarction

Abhishek C. Sawant, Prabhat Adhikari, Swapna R. Narra, Shantanu S. Srivatsa, Paul K. Mills, Sanjay S. Srivatsa
DOI: 10.5603/CJ.a2013.0148
·
Cardiol J 2014;21(5):500-508.

open access

Vol 21, No 5 (2014)
Original articles
Published online: 2014-10-29

Abstract

Background: Several inflammation biomarkers have been implicated in the pathogenesis and prognosis of acute coronary syndromes. However, the prognostic role of the neutrophil-lymphocyte white cell interactive response to myocardial injury in predicting short- and long-term mortality after ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) remains poorly defined.

Methods: We evaluated 250 consecutive STEMI patients presenting acutely for revascularization to our tertiary care center over 1 year. Patients with acute sepsis, trauma, recent surgery, autoimmune diseases, or underlying malignancy were excluded. Data gathered included demographics, clinical presentation, leukocyte markers, electrocardiograms, evaluations, therapy,major adverse cardiac events, and all-cause mortality.

Results: Mean age was 62 ± 15 years, 70.4% of subjects were males while majority (49.4%) were Caucasians. Mean duration of follow-up was 571 ± 291 days (median 730 days). Univariate analysis of several inflammatory biomarkers including C-reactive protein, revealed white cell count (OR = 1.09, p < 0.001) and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) (OR = 1.05, p = 0.011) as predictors of short- and long-term mortality; but not mean neutrophil count (OR = 1.04, p = 0.055) or lymphocyte count alone (OR = 0.96, p = 0.551). Multivariate analysis using backward stepwise regression revealed NLR (OR = 2.64, p = 0.026), female gender (OR = 5.35, p < 0.001), cerebrovascular accident history (OR = 3.36, p = 0.023), low glomerular filtration rate (OR = 0.98, p = 0.012) and cardiac arrest on admission (OR = 17.43, p < 0.001) as robust independent predictors of long-term mortality. NLR was divided into two sub-groups based on an optimal cut off value of 7.4. This provided the best discriminatory cut off point for predicting adverse mortality outcome. Both short-term (≤ 30 days) and long-term (≤ 2 years) mortality were predicted with Kaplan-Meier survival curve separation best stratified by a NLR cut off value of 7.4.

Conclusions: NLR based on an optimal cut off value of 7.4, was an excellent predictor of short- and long-term survival in patients with revascularized STEMI and warrants larger scale multi-center prospective evaluation, as a prognostic indicator. NLR offers improved prognostic capacity when combined with conventional clinical scoring systems, such as the Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction risk score.

Abstract

Background: Several inflammation biomarkers have been implicated in the pathogenesis and prognosis of acute coronary syndromes. However, the prognostic role of the neutrophil-lymphocyte white cell interactive response to myocardial injury in predicting short- and long-term mortality after ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) remains poorly defined.

Methods: We evaluated 250 consecutive STEMI patients presenting acutely for revascularization to our tertiary care center over 1 year. Patients with acute sepsis, trauma, recent surgery, autoimmune diseases, or underlying malignancy were excluded. Data gathered included demographics, clinical presentation, leukocyte markers, electrocardiograms, evaluations, therapy,major adverse cardiac events, and all-cause mortality.

Results: Mean age was 62 ± 15 years, 70.4% of subjects were males while majority (49.4%) were Caucasians. Mean duration of follow-up was 571 ± 291 days (median 730 days). Univariate analysis of several inflammatory biomarkers including C-reactive protein, revealed white cell count (OR = 1.09, p < 0.001) and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) (OR = 1.05, p = 0.011) as predictors of short- and long-term mortality; but not mean neutrophil count (OR = 1.04, p = 0.055) or lymphocyte count alone (OR = 0.96, p = 0.551). Multivariate analysis using backward stepwise regression revealed NLR (OR = 2.64, p = 0.026), female gender (OR = 5.35, p < 0.001), cerebrovascular accident history (OR = 3.36, p = 0.023), low glomerular filtration rate (OR = 0.98, p = 0.012) and cardiac arrest on admission (OR = 17.43, p < 0.001) as robust independent predictors of long-term mortality. NLR was divided into two sub-groups based on an optimal cut off value of 7.4. This provided the best discriminatory cut off point for predicting adverse mortality outcome. Both short-term (≤ 30 days) and long-term (≤ 2 years) mortality were predicted with Kaplan-Meier survival curve separation best stratified by a NLR cut off value of 7.4.

Conclusions: NLR based on an optimal cut off value of 7.4, was an excellent predictor of short- and long-term survival in patients with revascularized STEMI and warrants larger scale multi-center prospective evaluation, as a prognostic indicator. NLR offers improved prognostic capacity when combined with conventional clinical scoring systems, such as the Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction risk score.

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Keywords

neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio, ST elevation myocardial infarction, Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction risk score, predictors of mortality, percutaneous coronary revascularization

About this article
Title

Neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio predicts short- and long-term mortality following revascularization therapy for ST elevation myocardial infarction

Journal

Cardiology Journal

Issue

Vol 21, No 5 (2014)

Pages

500-508

Published online

2014-10-29

DOI

10.5603/CJ.a2013.0148

Bibliographic record

Cardiol J 2014;21(5):500-508.

Keywords

neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio
ST elevation myocardial infarction
Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction risk score
predictors of mortality
percutaneous coronary revascularization

Authors

Abhishek C. Sawant
Prabhat Adhikari
Swapna R. Narra
Shantanu S. Srivatsa
Paul K. Mills
Sanjay S. Srivatsa

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