open access

Vol 48, No 2 (2016)
Original and clinical articles
Published online: 2015-11-20
Submitted: 2015-10-25
Accepted: 2015-11-03
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Incidence and prognosis of intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome in severely burned patients: Pilot study and review of the literature

Robert Wise, Jimmy Jacobs, Sylvain Pilate, Ann Jacobs, Yannick Peeters, Stefanie Vandervelden, Niels Van Regenmortel, Inneke De laet, Karen Schoonheydt, Hilde Dits, Manu L.N.G. Malbrain
DOI: 10.5603/AIT.a2015.0083
·
Anaesthesiol Intensive Ther 2016;48(2):95-109.

open access

Vol 48, No 2 (2016)
Original and clinical articles
Published online: 2015-11-20
Submitted: 2015-10-25
Accepted: 2015-11-03

Abstract

Background: Burn patients are at high risk for secondary intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) due to capillary leak and large volume fluid resuscitation. Our objective was to examine the incidence the incidence of IAH and ACS and their relation to outcome in mechanically ventilated (MV) burn patients.

Methods: This observational study included all MV burn patients admitted between April 2007 and December 2009. Various physiological parameters, intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) measurements and severity scoring indices were recorded on admission and/or each day in ICU. Transpulmonary thermodilution parameters were also obtained in 23 patients. The mean and maximum IAP during admission was calculated. The primary endpoint was ICU (burn unit) mortality.

Results: Fifty-six patients were included. The average Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS II) and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) scores were 43.4 (± 15.1) and 6.4 (± 3.4), respectively. The average total body surface area (TBSA) affected by burns was 24.9% (± 24.9), with 33 patients suffering inhalational injuries. Forty-four (78.6%) patients developed IAH and 16 (28.6%) suffered ACS. Patients with ACS had higher TBSAs burned (35.8 ± 30 vs. 20.6 ± 21.4%, P = 0.04) and higher cumulative fluid balances after 48 hours (13.6 ± 16L vs. 7.6 ± 4.1 L, P = 0.03). The TBSA burned correlated well with the mean IAP (R = 0.34, P = 0.01). Mortality was notably high (26.8%) and significantly higher in patients with IAH (34.1%, P = 0.014) and ACS (62.5%, P < 0.0001). Most patients received more fluids than calculated by the Parkland Consensus Formula while, interestingly, non-survivors received less. However, when patients with pure inhalation injury were excluded there were no differences. Non-surgical interventions (n = 24) were successful in removing body fluids and were related to a significant decrease in IAP, central venous pressure (CVP) and an improvement in oxygenation and urine output. Non-resolution of IAH was associated with a significantly worse outcome (P < 0.0001).

Conclusion: Based on our preliminary results we conclude that IAH and ACS have a relatively high incidence in MV burn patients compared to other groups of critically ill patients. The percentage of TBSA burned correlates with the mean IAP. The combination of high CLI, positive (daily and cumulative) fluid balance, high IAP, high EVLWI and low APP suggest a poor outcome. Non-surgical interventions appear to improve end-organ function. Non-resolution of IAH is related to a worse outcome.

Abstract

Background: Burn patients are at high risk for secondary intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) due to capillary leak and large volume fluid resuscitation. Our objective was to examine the incidence the incidence of IAH and ACS and their relation to outcome in mechanically ventilated (MV) burn patients.

Methods: This observational study included all MV burn patients admitted between April 2007 and December 2009. Various physiological parameters, intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) measurements and severity scoring indices were recorded on admission and/or each day in ICU. Transpulmonary thermodilution parameters were also obtained in 23 patients. The mean and maximum IAP during admission was calculated. The primary endpoint was ICU (burn unit) mortality.

Results: Fifty-six patients were included. The average Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS II) and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) scores were 43.4 (± 15.1) and 6.4 (± 3.4), respectively. The average total body surface area (TBSA) affected by burns was 24.9% (± 24.9), with 33 patients suffering inhalational injuries. Forty-four (78.6%) patients developed IAH and 16 (28.6%) suffered ACS. Patients with ACS had higher TBSAs burned (35.8 ± 30 vs. 20.6 ± 21.4%, P = 0.04) and higher cumulative fluid balances after 48 hours (13.6 ± 16L vs. 7.6 ± 4.1 L, P = 0.03). The TBSA burned correlated well with the mean IAP (R = 0.34, P = 0.01). Mortality was notably high (26.8%) and significantly higher in patients with IAH (34.1%, P = 0.014) and ACS (62.5%, P < 0.0001). Most patients received more fluids than calculated by the Parkland Consensus Formula while, interestingly, non-survivors received less. However, when patients with pure inhalation injury were excluded there were no differences. Non-surgical interventions (n = 24) were successful in removing body fluids and were related to a significant decrease in IAP, central venous pressure (CVP) and an improvement in oxygenation and urine output. Non-resolution of IAH was associated with a significantly worse outcome (P < 0.0001).

Conclusion: Based on our preliminary results we conclude that IAH and ACS have a relatively high incidence in MV burn patients compared to other groups of critically ill patients. The percentage of TBSA burned correlates with the mean IAP. The combination of high CLI, positive (daily and cumulative) fluid balance, high IAP, high EVLWI and low APP suggest a poor outcome. Non-surgical interventions appear to improve end-organ function. Non-resolution of IAH is related to a worse outcome.

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Keywords

abdominal pressure, abdominal hypertension, abdominal compartment syndrome, burns, incidence, fluid resuscitation, monitoring, treatment

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About this article
Title

Incidence and prognosis of intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome in severely burned patients: Pilot study and review of the literature

Journal

Anaesthesiology Intensive Therapy

Issue

Vol 48, No 2 (2016)

Pages

95-109

Published online

2015-11-20

DOI

10.5603/AIT.a2015.0083

Bibliographic record

Anaesthesiol Intensive Ther 2016;48(2):95-109.

Keywords

abdominal pressure
abdominal hypertension
abdominal compartment syndrome
burns
incidence
fluid resuscitation
monitoring
treatment

Authors

Robert Wise
Jimmy Jacobs
Sylvain Pilate
Ann Jacobs
Yannick Peeters
Stefanie Vandervelden
Niels Van Regenmortel
Inneke De laet
Karen Schoonheydt
Hilde Dits
Manu L.N.G. Malbrain

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