open access

Vol 47, No 5 (2015)
Review articles
Published online: 2015-11-18
Submitted: 2015-09-29
Accepted: 2015-10-25
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Perioperative goal directed therapy using automated closed-loop fluid management: the future?

Alexandre Joosten, Brenton Alexander, Amélie Delaporte, Marc Lilot, Joseph Rinehart, Maxime Cannesson
DOI: 10.5603/AIT.a2015.0069
·
Anaesthesiol Intensive Ther 2015;47(5):517-523.

open access

Vol 47, No 5 (2015)
Review articles
Published online: 2015-11-18
Submitted: 2015-09-29
Accepted: 2015-10-25

Abstract

 Although surgery has become much safer, it has also becoming increasingly more complex and perioperative complications continue to impact millions of patients worldwide each year. Perioperative hemodynamic optimization utilizing Goal Directed Therapy (GDT) has attracted considerable interest within the last decade due to its ability to improve postoperative short and long-term outcomes in patients undergoing higher risk surgeries. The concept of GDT in this context can be loosely defined as collecting data from minimally invasive hemodynamic monitors with the intention of using such data (flow-related parameters and/or dynamic parameters of fluid responsiveness) to titrate therapeutic interventions (intravenous fluids and/or inotropic therapy administration) with the ultimate aim of optimizing end organ tissue perfusion. Recently, the increasing amount of evidence supporting the implementation of GDT strategies has been considered so robust as to allow for the creation of national recommendations in the United Kingdom (UK), France, and Europe. These recommendations from such influential scientific societies and the potential clinical and economic benefits of GDT protocols need to also be examined within the current shift from a “pay for service” to a “pay for performance” health care system. This shift is strongly encouraged within emerging systems such as the Perioperative Surgical Home (PSH) paradigm from the United States. As a result, hospitals and clinicians around the world have become increasingly incentivized to implement perioperative hemodynamic optimization using GDT strategies within their departments. Unfortunately, its adoption continues to be quite limited and a lack of standardized criteria for perioperative fluid administrations has resulted in significant clinical variability among practitioners. This current review will provide a brief up-to-date overview of GDT, discuss current clinical practice, analyze why implementation has been limited and finally, describe the newer closed-loop GDT concept along with its potential risks and benefits.

Abstract

 Although surgery has become much safer, it has also becoming increasingly more complex and perioperative complications continue to impact millions of patients worldwide each year. Perioperative hemodynamic optimization utilizing Goal Directed Therapy (GDT) has attracted considerable interest within the last decade due to its ability to improve postoperative short and long-term outcomes in patients undergoing higher risk surgeries. The concept of GDT in this context can be loosely defined as collecting data from minimally invasive hemodynamic monitors with the intention of using such data (flow-related parameters and/or dynamic parameters of fluid responsiveness) to titrate therapeutic interventions (intravenous fluids and/or inotropic therapy administration) with the ultimate aim of optimizing end organ tissue perfusion. Recently, the increasing amount of evidence supporting the implementation of GDT strategies has been considered so robust as to allow for the creation of national recommendations in the United Kingdom (UK), France, and Europe. These recommendations from such influential scientific societies and the potential clinical and economic benefits of GDT protocols need to also be examined within the current shift from a “pay for service” to a “pay for performance” health care system. This shift is strongly encouraged within emerging systems such as the Perioperative Surgical Home (PSH) paradigm from the United States. As a result, hospitals and clinicians around the world have become increasingly incentivized to implement perioperative hemodynamic optimization using GDT strategies within their departments. Unfortunately, its adoption continues to be quite limited and a lack of standardized criteria for perioperative fluid administrations has resulted in significant clinical variability among practitioners. This current review will provide a brief up-to-date overview of GDT, discuss current clinical practice, analyze why implementation has been limited and finally, describe the newer closed-loop GDT concept along with its potential risks and benefits.

Get Citation

Keywords

goal directed therapy; hemodynamic optimization; closed-loop; cardiac output

About this article
Title

Perioperative goal directed therapy using automated closed-loop fluid management: the future?

Journal

Anaesthesiology Intensive Therapy

Issue

Vol 47, No 5 (2015)

Pages

517-523

Published online

2015-11-18

DOI

10.5603/AIT.a2015.0069

Bibliographic record

Anaesthesiol Intensive Ther 2015;47(5):517-523.

Keywords

goal directed therapy
hemodynamic optimization
closed-loop
cardiac output

Authors

Alexandre Joosten
Brenton Alexander
Amélie Delaporte
Marc Lilot
Joseph Rinehart
Maxime Cannesson

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