open access

Vol 89, No 5 (2021)
Research paper
Submitted: 2021-04-21
Accepted: 2021-07-06
Published online: 2021-09-27
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Influence of obstructive sleep apnea on right heart structure and function

Michał Harańczyk1, Małgorzata Konieczyńska1, Wojciech Płazak2
DOI: 10.5603/ARM.a2021.0095
·
Pubmed: 34569612
·
Adv Respir Med 2021;89(5):493-500.
Affiliations
  1. Department of Diagnostic Medicine, John Paul II Hospital, Kraków, Poland
  2. Department of Cardiac and Vascular Diseases, John Paul II Hospital, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Kraków, Poland

open access

Vol 89, No 5 (2021)
ORIGINAL PAPERS
Submitted: 2021-04-21
Accepted: 2021-07-06
Published online: 2021-09-27

Abstract

Introduction: Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is a highly prevalent sleep disorder associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to investigate heart structure and function and their correlation with the degree of OSAS and sleep indexes in patients diagnosed with OSAS.

Materials and methods: A cohort of 77patients (48 males, aged 58.1 ± 11.0 years, body mass index [BMI] = 32.4 ± 6.2) admitted to the hospital due to suspected OSAS was examined using echocardiography and polysomnography.

Results: Patients with moderate-to-severe OSAS compared to patients without diagnosed OSAS or with mild OSAS had greater right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) dimensions (32.6 ± 3.6 vs 30.9 ± 2.4 mm; p < 0.05), larger right atrial area (RAA; 21.1 ± 4.8 vs 17.2 ± 3.2 mm; p = 0.002), greater right ventricular mid-cavity diameter (RVD; 35.5 ± 7.0 vs 32.2 ± 4.7 mm; p = 0.02), and diminished tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE, 21.9 ± 4.5 vs 25.8 ± 4.4 mm; p = 0.04), while there were no significant differences in tissue doppler imaging (TDI) parameters (S’ and E’) and in valvular regurgitation gradient for both groups. Moreover, significantly greater RVOT dimensions (31.6 ± 2.6 vs 30.9 ± 3.0 mm, p = 0.04), RVD (39.3 ± 7.0 vs 32.7 ± 5.2 mm, p = 0.003), and RAA (21.4 ± 4.4 vs 18.1 ± 4.2 mm, p = 0.02) as well as reduction in TAPSE (20.9 ± 5.3 vs 25.0 ± 4.3 mm, p = 0.01) were observed in patients having ≥ 10 episodes of obstructive apnea (OA) per hour.

Conclusions: In moderate-to-severe OSAS patients, right ventricular (RV) enlargement was observed together with RV dysfunction as measured by TAPSE. Examination using TDI is not superior to standard echocardiography for the detection of heart pathology in OSAS patients. Right heart pathology is present predominantly in patients with obstructive apnea.

Abstract

Introduction: Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is a highly prevalent sleep disorder associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to investigate heart structure and function and their correlation with the degree of OSAS and sleep indexes in patients diagnosed with OSAS.

Materials and methods: A cohort of 77patients (48 males, aged 58.1 ± 11.0 years, body mass index [BMI] = 32.4 ± 6.2) admitted to the hospital due to suspected OSAS was examined using echocardiography and polysomnography.

Results: Patients with moderate-to-severe OSAS compared to patients without diagnosed OSAS or with mild OSAS had greater right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) dimensions (32.6 ± 3.6 vs 30.9 ± 2.4 mm; p < 0.05), larger right atrial area (RAA; 21.1 ± 4.8 vs 17.2 ± 3.2 mm; p = 0.002), greater right ventricular mid-cavity diameter (RVD; 35.5 ± 7.0 vs 32.2 ± 4.7 mm; p = 0.02), and diminished tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE, 21.9 ± 4.5 vs 25.8 ± 4.4 mm; p = 0.04), while there were no significant differences in tissue doppler imaging (TDI) parameters (S’ and E’) and in valvular regurgitation gradient for both groups. Moreover, significantly greater RVOT dimensions (31.6 ± 2.6 vs 30.9 ± 3.0 mm, p = 0.04), RVD (39.3 ± 7.0 vs 32.7 ± 5.2 mm, p = 0.003), and RAA (21.4 ± 4.4 vs 18.1 ± 4.2 mm, p = 0.02) as well as reduction in TAPSE (20.9 ± 5.3 vs 25.0 ± 4.3 mm, p = 0.01) were observed in patients having ≥ 10 episodes of obstructive apnea (OA) per hour.

Conclusions: In moderate-to-severe OSAS patients, right ventricular (RV) enlargement was observed together with RV dysfunction as measured by TAPSE. Examination using TDI is not superior to standard echocardiography for the detection of heart pathology in OSAS patients. Right heart pathology is present predominantly in patients with obstructive apnea.

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Keywords

sleep apnea, CPAP, polysomnography, echocardiography, right ventricle

About this article
Title

Influence of obstructive sleep apnea on right heart structure and function

Journal

Advances in Respiratory Medicine

Issue

Vol 89, No 5 (2021)

Article type

Research paper

Pages

493-500

Published online

2021-09-27

DOI

10.5603/ARM.a2021.0095

Pubmed

34569612

Bibliographic record

Adv Respir Med 2021;89(5):493-500.

Keywords

sleep apnea
CPAP
polysomnography
echocardiography
right ventricle

Authors

Michał Harańczyk
Małgorzata Konieczyńska
Wojciech Płazak

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