open access

Vol 89, No 4 (2021)
Research paper
Submitted: 2020-10-24
Accepted: 2021-01-05
Published online: 2021-07-16
Get Citation

The relationship between nasal mucociliary clearance time and the degree of smoking dependence in smokers with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome

Seyhan Dülger1, Çağla Çapkur2, Sündüs Gençay2, Süay Özmen2, Fevzi Solmaz2, Özlem Şengören Dikiş1, Tekin Yıldız1
DOI: 10.5603/ARM.a2021.0069
·
Pubmed: 34269400
·
Adv Respir Med 2021;89(4):353-358.
Affiliations
  1. Health Sciences University Bursa Yüksek İhtisas Education and Training Hospital, Bursa, Turkey
  2. Health Sciences University Bursa Yüksek İhtisas Education and Training Hospital, Otorhinolaryngology Department, Bursa, Turkey

open access

Vol 89, No 4 (2021)
ORIGINAL PAPERS
Submitted: 2020-10-24
Accepted: 2021-01-05
Published online: 2021-07-16

Abstract

Introduction: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between nasal mucociliary clearance time (NMCT), degree of smoking dependence, cumulative smoking burden and OSAS severity in smokers.
Material and methods: 123 patients (Group 1) with OSAS and 92 healthy controls (Group 2) were included in the study. Group 1 was divided into smokers (Group 1a) and non-smokers (Group 1b). In Group 1a, cumulative smoking burden and Fagerström nicotine dependence test (FNDT) were questioned. Saccharin test was applied to Groups 1 and 2. Student-t, Mann-Whitney-U, Anova, Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to compare the means.
Results: NMCT was higher in Group 1 than Group 2 (p = 0.005). The duration of NMCT was higher in Group 1A than Group 1B (p = 0.002). In Group 1a, NMCT values of mild and moderate OSAS patients were longer than in Group 1b (p = 0.02, p = 0.01, respectively). NMCT values of patients with mild dependence were shorter than those with moderate or severe dependence (p = 0.032, p < 0.001, respectively).
Conclusion: Mucociliary clearance time was higher in smokers with OSAS than non-smokers. While OSAS has a negative effect on mucociliary clearance, smoking also exacerbates the condition.

Abstract

Introduction: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between nasal mucociliary clearance time (NMCT), degree of smoking dependence, cumulative smoking burden and OSAS severity in smokers.
Material and methods: 123 patients (Group 1) with OSAS and 92 healthy controls (Group 2) were included in the study. Group 1 was divided into smokers (Group 1a) and non-smokers (Group 1b). In Group 1a, cumulative smoking burden and Fagerström nicotine dependence test (FNDT) were questioned. Saccharin test was applied to Groups 1 and 2. Student-t, Mann-Whitney-U, Anova, Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to compare the means.
Results: NMCT was higher in Group 1 than Group 2 (p = 0.005). The duration of NMCT was higher in Group 1A than Group 1B (p = 0.002). In Group 1a, NMCT values of mild and moderate OSAS patients were longer than in Group 1b (p = 0.02, p = 0.01, respectively). NMCT values of patients with mild dependence were shorter than those with moderate or severe dependence (p = 0.032, p < 0.001, respectively).
Conclusion: Mucociliary clearance time was higher in smokers with OSAS than non-smokers. While OSAS has a negative effect on mucociliary clearance, smoking also exacerbates the condition.

Get Citation

Keywords

smoking; obstructive sleep apnea; nasal mucociliary clearance time; saccharine test

About this article
Title

The relationship between nasal mucociliary clearance time and the degree of smoking dependence in smokers with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome

Journal

Advances in Respiratory Medicine

Issue

Vol 89, No 4 (2021)

Article type

Research paper

Pages

353-358

Published online

2021-07-16

DOI

10.5603/ARM.a2021.0069

Pubmed

34269400

Bibliographic record

Adv Respir Med 2021;89(4):353-358.

Keywords

smoking
obstructive sleep apnea
nasal mucociliary clearance time
saccharine test

Authors

Seyhan Dülger
Çağla Çapkur
Sündüs Gençay
Süay Özmen
Fevzi Solmaz
Özlem Şengören Dikiş
Tekin Yıldız

References (25)
  1. Wanner A. Clinical aspects of mucociliary transport. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1977; 116(1): 73–125.
  2. Uslu H, Uslu C, Varoglu E, et al. Effects of septoplasty and septal deviation on nasal mucociliary clearance. Int J Clin Pract. 2004; 58(12): 1108–1111.
  3. Gudis D, Zhao Kq, Cohen NA. Acquired cilia dysfunction in chronic rhinosinusitis. Am J Rhinol Allergy. 2012; 26(1): 1–6.
  4. Utiyama DM, Yoshida CT, Goto DM, et al. The effects of smoking and smoking cessation on nasal mucociliary clearance, mucus properties and inflammation. Clinics (Sao Paulo). 2016; 71(6): 344–350.
  5. Andersen I, Camner P, Jensen PL, et al. A comparison of nasal and tracheobronchial clearance. Arch Environ Health. 1974; 29(5): 290–293.
  6. Rutland J, Cole PJ. Non-invasive sampling of nasal cilia for measurement of beat frequency and study of ultrastructure. Lancet. 1980; 2(8194): 564–565.
  7. Dülger S, Akdeniz Ö, Solmaz F, et al. Evaluation of nasal mucociliary clearance using saccharin test in smokers: A prospective study. Clin Respir J. 2018; 12(4): 1706–1710.
  8. Arnold J, Sunilkumar M, Krishna V, et al. Obstructive sleep apnea. J Pharm Bioallied Sci. 2017; 9(Suppl 1): S26–S28.
  9. Senaratna CV, Perret JL, Lodge CJ, et al. Prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea in the general population: A systematic review. Sleep Med Rev. 2017; 34: 70–81.
  10. Rotenberg BW, Vicini C, Pang EB, et al. Reconsidering first-line treatment for obstructive sleep apnea: a systematic review of the literature. J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2016; 45: 23.
  11. Iftikhar IH, Bittencourt L, Youngstedt SD, et al. Comparative efficacy of CPAP, MADs, exercise-training, and dietary weight loss for sleep apnea: a network meta-analysis. Sleep Med. 2017; 30: 7–14.
  12. Proença M, Fagundes Xavier R, Ramos D, et al. Immediate and short term effects of smoking on nasal mucociliary clearance in smokers [article in Portuguese]. Rev Port Pneumol. 2011; 17(4): 172–176.
  13. Kim KS, Kim JH, Park SY, et al. Smoking induces oropharyngeal narrowing and increases the severity of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. J Clin Sleep Med. 2012; 8(4): 367–374.
  14. Wetter DW, Young TB, Bidwell TR, et al. Smoking as a risk factor for sleep-disordered breathing. Arch Intern Med. 1994; 154(19): 2219–2224.
  15. Krishnan V, Dixon-Williams S, Thornton JD. Where there is smoke…there is sleep apnea: exploring the relationship between smoking and sleep apnea. Chest. 2014; 146(6): 1673–1680.
  16. Deniz M, Gultekin E, Ciftci Z, et al. Nasal mucociliary clearance in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome patients. Am J Rhinol Allergy. 2014; 28(5): 178–180.
  17. Tavasoli A, Jalilolghadr S, Lotfi S. Sleep symptoms and polysomnographic patterns of obstructive sleep apnea in obese children. Iran J Child Neurol. 2016; 10(1): 14–20.
  18. American Academy of Sleep Medicine. Obstructive sleep Apnea Darien, IL, 2008.
  19. Fagerström KO. Measuring degree of physical dependence to tobacco smoking with reference to individualization of treatment. Addict Behav. 1978; 3(3–4): 235–241.
  20. Wood DM, Mould MG, Ong SBY, et al. "Pack year" smoking histories: what about patients who use loose tobacco? Tob Control. 2005; 14(2): 141–142.
  21. Ramos EMC, Vanderlei LC, Ito JT, et al. Acute mucociliary clearance response to aerobic exercise in smokers. Respir Care. 2015; 60(11): 1575–1584.
  22. Lin YN, Zhou LN, Zhang XJ, et al. Combined effect of obstructive sleep apnea and chronic smoking on cognitive impairment. Sleep Breath. 2016; 20(1): 51–59.
  23. Schrödter S, Biermann E, Halata Z. Histologic evaluation of nasal epithelium of the middle turbinate in untreated OSAS patients and during nCPAP therapy. Rhinology. 2004; 42(3): 153–157.
  24. Freire AP, Ramos D, Leite MR, et al. Influence of time and frequency of passive smoking exposure on mucociliary clearance and the autonomic nervous system. Respir Care. 2016; 61(4): 453–461.
  25. Xavier RF, Ramos D, Ito JT, et al. Effects of cigarette smoking intensity on the mucociliary clearance of active smokers. Respiration. 2013; 86(6): 479–485.

Regulations

Important: This website uses cookies. More >>

The cookies allow us to identify your computer and find out details about your last visit. They remembering whether you've visited the site before, so that you remain logged in - or to help us work out how many new website visitors we get each month. Most internet browsers accept cookies automatically, but you can change the settings of your browser to erase cookies or prevent automatic acceptance if you prefer.

Czasopismo Pneumonologia i Alergologia Polska dostęne jest również w Ikamed - księgarnia medyczna

Wydawcą serwisu jest "Via Medica sp. z o.o." sp.k., ul. Świętokrzyska 73, 80–180 Gdańsk

tel.:+48 58 320 94 94, faks:+48 58 320 94 60, e-mail: viamedica@viamedica.pl