open access

Vol 89, No 2 (2021)
Review paper
Published online: 2021-04-30
Submitted: 2020-10-17
Accepted: 2020-12-14
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Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): a brief overview of features and current treatment

Montaha Al-Iede, Eman Badran, Manar Al-lawama, Amirah Daher, Enas Al-Zayadneh, Shereen M Aleidi, Taima Khawaldeh, Basim Alqutawneh
DOI: 10.5603/ARM.a2021.0041
·
Pubmed: 33966263
·
Adv Respir Med 2021;89(2):158-172.

open access

Vol 89, No 2 (2021)
REVIEWS
Published online: 2021-04-30
Submitted: 2020-10-17
Accepted: 2020-12-14

Abstract

Since the report of the first cases of pneumonia caused by SARS-CoV-2 in December 2019, COVID-19 has become a pandemic and is globally overwhelming healthcare systems. The symptoms of COVID-19 vary from asymptomatic infection to severe complicated pneumonia with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and multiple organ failure leading to death. The estimated case-fatality rate among infected patients in Wuhan, the city where the first case appeared, was 1.4%, with 5.1 times increase in the death rate among those aged above 59 years than those aged 30–59 years. In the absence of a proven effective and licensed treatment, many agents that showed activity against previous coronavirus outbreaks such as SARS and MERS have been used to treat SARS-CoV-2 infection. The SARS-CoV-2 is reported to be 80% homologous with SARS-CoV, and some enzymes are almost 90% homologous. Antiviral drugs are urgently required to reduce case fatality-rate and hospitalizations to relieve the burden on healthcare systems worldwide. Randomized controlled trials are ongoing to assess the efficacy and safety of several treatment regimens.

Abstract

Since the report of the first cases of pneumonia caused by SARS-CoV-2 in December 2019, COVID-19 has become a pandemic and is globally overwhelming healthcare systems. The symptoms of COVID-19 vary from asymptomatic infection to severe complicated pneumonia with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and multiple organ failure leading to death. The estimated case-fatality rate among infected patients in Wuhan, the city where the first case appeared, was 1.4%, with 5.1 times increase in the death rate among those aged above 59 years than those aged 30–59 years. In the absence of a proven effective and licensed treatment, many agents that showed activity against previous coronavirus outbreaks such as SARS and MERS have been used to treat SARS-CoV-2 infection. The SARS-CoV-2 is reported to be 80% homologous with SARS-CoV, and some enzymes are almost 90% homologous. Antiviral drugs are urgently required to reduce case fatality-rate and hospitalizations to relieve the burden on healthcare systems worldwide. Randomized controlled trials are ongoing to assess the efficacy and safety of several treatment regimens.

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Keywords

SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; ARDS; Pandemic

About this article
Title

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): a brief overview of features and current treatment

Journal

Advances in Respiratory Medicine

Issue

Vol 89, No 2 (2021)

Article type

Review paper

Pages

158-172

Published online

2021-04-30

DOI

10.5603/ARM.a2021.0041

Pubmed

33966263

Bibliographic record

Adv Respir Med 2021;89(2):158-172.

Keywords

SARS-CoV-2
COVID-19
ARDS
Pandemic

Authors

Montaha Al-Iede
Eman Badran
Manar Al-lawama
Amirah Daher
Enas Al-Zayadneh
Shereen M Aleidi
Taima Khawaldeh
Basim Alqutawneh

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