open access

Vol 87, No 2 (2019)
ORIGINAL PAPERS
Published online: 2019-04-02
Submitted: 2018-11-26
Accepted: 2019-02-12
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Comparing the effects of upper limb and breathing exercises on six-minute walking distance among patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a three-group randomized controlled clinical trial

leili Yekefallah, Mohammad Ali Zohal, Ommolbanin Keshavarzsarkar, Ameneh Barikani, Maryam Gheraati
DOI: 10.5603/ARM.2019.0013
·
Pubmed: 31038717
·
Adv Respir Med 2019;87(2):77-82.

open access

Vol 87, No 2 (2019)
ORIGINAL PAPERS
Published online: 2019-04-02
Submitted: 2018-11-26
Accepted: 2019-02-12

Abstract

Introduction: Physical exercise can improve patient outcomes and reduce hospitalization and mortality rates among subjects
with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. This study aimed to compare the effects of upper limb and breathing exercises on
six-minute walking distance among these patients.

Material and methods: This three-group randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted in 2017–2018 in Velayat hospital,
Qazvin, Iran. Seventy-five patients were purposively selected from the outpatient lung clinic of the hospital and randomly allocated
to either the 25-patient groups of upper limb exercise, breathing exercise, or control. The patients in the first group were
performing upper limb exercises thrice weekly for one month in the study setting. Their counterparts in the second group were
doing pursed-lip and diaphragmatic breathing exercises four times daily for one month at their homes. However, the patients in
the control group received no exercise intervention. Six-minute walk test was performed by each participant both before and
after the study intervention. The SPSS for Windows program (v. 23.0) was used to analyze the data via the Chi-square test, the
paired-sample t test, and the one-way analysis of variance.

Results: Before the intervention, the groups did not significantly differ from each other respecting six-minute walking distance.
During the study, walking distance in the control group did not change significantly, while it remarkably increased in both the upper
limb exercise and the breathing exercise groups (p < 0.05). After the intervention, walking distance in the upper limb exercise
group was significantly greater than the breathing exercise group (p < 0.05) and the control group (p < 0.05); however, the
difference between the breathing exercise and the control groups was not statistically significant (p > 0.05).

Conclusion: Upper limb exercise is more effective than breathing exercise in increasing walking distance among patients with
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Therefore, upper limb exercise can be used as a safe, simple, and inexpensive rehabilitation
technique for these patients.

Abstract

Introduction: Physical exercise can improve patient outcomes and reduce hospitalization and mortality rates among subjects
with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. This study aimed to compare the effects of upper limb and breathing exercises on
six-minute walking distance among these patients.

Material and methods: This three-group randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted in 2017–2018 in Velayat hospital,
Qazvin, Iran. Seventy-five patients were purposively selected from the outpatient lung clinic of the hospital and randomly allocated
to either the 25-patient groups of upper limb exercise, breathing exercise, or control. The patients in the first group were
performing upper limb exercises thrice weekly for one month in the study setting. Their counterparts in the second group were
doing pursed-lip and diaphragmatic breathing exercises four times daily for one month at their homes. However, the patients in
the control group received no exercise intervention. Six-minute walk test was performed by each participant both before and
after the study intervention. The SPSS for Windows program (v. 23.0) was used to analyze the data via the Chi-square test, the
paired-sample t test, and the one-way analysis of variance.

Results: Before the intervention, the groups did not significantly differ from each other respecting six-minute walking distance.
During the study, walking distance in the control group did not change significantly, while it remarkably increased in both the upper
limb exercise and the breathing exercise groups (p < 0.05). After the intervention, walking distance in the upper limb exercise
group was significantly greater than the breathing exercise group (p < 0.05) and the control group (p < 0.05); however, the
difference between the breathing exercise and the control groups was not statistically significant (p > 0.05).

Conclusion: Upper limb exercise is more effective than breathing exercise in increasing walking distance among patients with
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Therefore, upper limb exercise can be used as a safe, simple, and inexpensive rehabilitation
technique for these patients.

Get Citation

Keywords

chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, upper limb exercise, breathing exercise, six-minute walk test

About this article
Title

Comparing the effects of upper limb and breathing exercises on six-minute walking distance among patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a three-group randomized controlled clinical trial

Journal

Advances in Respiratory Medicine

Issue

Vol 87, No 2 (2019)

Pages

77-82

Published online

2019-04-02

DOI

10.5603/ARM.2019.0013

Pubmed

31038717

Bibliographic record

Adv Respir Med 2019;87(2):77-82.

Keywords

chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
upper limb exercise
breathing exercise
six-minute walk test

Authors

leili Yekefallah
Mohammad Ali Zohal
Ommolbanin Keshavarzsarkar
Ameneh Barikani
Maryam Gheraati

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