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Vol 85, No 2 (2017)
REVIEWS
Published online: 2017-03-12
Submitted: 2016-12-20
Accepted: 2017-02-02
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Socioeconomic status and its relationship to chronic respiratory disease

Sonu Sahni, Ankoor Talwar, Sameer Khanijo, Arunabh Talwar
DOI: 10.5603/ARM.2017.0016
·
Adv Respir Med 2017;85(2):97-108.

open access

Vol 85, No 2 (2017)
REVIEWS
Published online: 2017-03-12
Submitted: 2016-12-20
Accepted: 2017-02-02

Abstract

Socioeconomic status (SES) is defined as an individual’s social or economic standing, and is a measure of an individual’s or family’s social or economic position or rank in a social group. It is a composite of several measures including income, education, occupation, location of residence or housing. Studies have found a lower SES has been linked to disproportionate access to health care in many diseases. There is emerging data in pulmonary diseases such as COPD, asthma, cystic fibrosis, pulmonary hypertension and other chronic respiratory conditions that allude to a similar observation noted in other chronic diseases. In the setting of COPD, SES has an inverse relationship with COPD prevalence, mortality, health utilization costs and HRQoL. Asthma and cystic fibrosis show an increased severity and hospitalizations in relationship to a lower SES. Similar observations were seen in sarcoidosis, PHTN and obstructive sleep apnea. There remains a limited data on non-CF bronchiectasis and interstitial lung diseases. Population SES may be gauged by various measures such as education, occupation, marital status but no value is more indicative than income. Currently guidelines and management algorithms do not factor the effect of SES in the disease process. Despite the great amount of data available, a standardized method must be created to include SES in the prognostic calculations and management of chronic pulmonary diseases.

Abstract

Socioeconomic status (SES) is defined as an individual’s social or economic standing, and is a measure of an individual’s or family’s social or economic position or rank in a social group. It is a composite of several measures including income, education, occupation, location of residence or housing. Studies have found a lower SES has been linked to disproportionate access to health care in many diseases. There is emerging data in pulmonary diseases such as COPD, asthma, cystic fibrosis, pulmonary hypertension and other chronic respiratory conditions that allude to a similar observation noted in other chronic diseases. In the setting of COPD, SES has an inverse relationship with COPD prevalence, mortality, health utilization costs and HRQoL. Asthma and cystic fibrosis show an increased severity and hospitalizations in relationship to a lower SES. Similar observations were seen in sarcoidosis, PHTN and obstructive sleep apnea. There remains a limited data on non-CF bronchiectasis and interstitial lung diseases. Population SES may be gauged by various measures such as education, occupation, marital status but no value is more indicative than income. Currently guidelines and management algorithms do not factor the effect of SES in the disease process. Despite the great amount of data available, a standardized method must be created to include SES in the prognostic calculations and management of chronic pulmonary diseases.

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Keywords

socioeconomic status; pulmonary disease; disease severity; access to health care; chronic respiratory disease

About this article
Title

Socioeconomic status and its relationship to chronic respiratory disease

Journal

Advances in Respiratory Medicine

Issue

Vol 85, No 2 (2017)

Pages

97-108

Published online

2017-03-12

DOI

10.5603/ARM.2017.0016

Bibliographic record

Adv Respir Med 2017;85(2):97-108.

Keywords

socioeconomic status
pulmonary disease
disease severity
access to health care
chronic respiratory disease

Authors

Sonu Sahni
Ankoor Talwar
Sameer Khanijo
Arunabh Talwar

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