open access

Vol 84, No 4 (2016)
REVIEWS
Submitted: 2016-07-14
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The effect of omalizumab on eosinophilic inflammation of the respiratory tract in patients with allergic asthma

Izabela Kupryś-Lipińska, Katarzyna Molińska, Piotr Kuna
DOI: 10.5603/PiAP.2016.0029
·
Pubmed: 27435350
·
Pneumonol Alergol Pol 2016;84(4):232-243.

open access

Vol 84, No 4 (2016)
REVIEWS
Submitted: 2016-07-14

Abstract

Bronchial asthma is characterised by high levels of immunoglobulin E (IgE) and overproduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including interleukins IL-4, IL-13 and IL-5 needed for, amongst other things, the production of IgE and the differentiation, maturation, migration and survival of eosinophils. Eosinophils are one of the most important cells in allergic inflammation. Their presence in tissue is linked to the persistence of inflammatory infiltrate, tissue damage and remodelling. Although these cells are very sensitive to corticosteroids, some asthmatic patients do not respond to high doses of these drugs, even when administered systemically. Transbronchial biopsies and bronchoalveolar lavage performed in patients with steroid-resistant asthma have demonstrated higher levels of eosinophils and Th2-type cytokines (IL-4 and IL-5) compared to steroid-sensitive patients. Clinical studies have confirmed that the very effective treatment in these cases is therapy with omalizumab – an anti-IgE monoclonal antibody. The paper discusses the efficacy of omalizumab in reducing eosinophil number in peripheral blood and in the airways of asthmatic patients based on basic, clinical, observational studies and case reports. The significance of omalizumab therapy in asthma control and mechanisms that regulate the effects of omalizumab on eosinophils are evaluated.

Abstract

Bronchial asthma is characterised by high levels of immunoglobulin E (IgE) and overproduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including interleukins IL-4, IL-13 and IL-5 needed for, amongst other things, the production of IgE and the differentiation, maturation, migration and survival of eosinophils. Eosinophils are one of the most important cells in allergic inflammation. Their presence in tissue is linked to the persistence of inflammatory infiltrate, tissue damage and remodelling. Although these cells are very sensitive to corticosteroids, some asthmatic patients do not respond to high doses of these drugs, even when administered systemically. Transbronchial biopsies and bronchoalveolar lavage performed in patients with steroid-resistant asthma have demonstrated higher levels of eosinophils and Th2-type cytokines (IL-4 and IL-5) compared to steroid-sensitive patients. Clinical studies have confirmed that the very effective treatment in these cases is therapy with omalizumab – an anti-IgE monoclonal antibody. The paper discusses the efficacy of omalizumab in reducing eosinophil number in peripheral blood and in the airways of asthmatic patients based on basic, clinical, observational studies and case reports. The significance of omalizumab therapy in asthma control and mechanisms that regulate the effects of omalizumab on eosinophils are evaluated.

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Keywords

allergic asthma, omalizumab, eosinophilic inflammation, eosinophils

About this article
Title

The effect of omalizumab on eosinophilic inflammation of the respiratory tract in patients with allergic asthma

Journal

Advances in Respiratory Medicine

Issue

Vol 84, No 4 (2016)

Pages

232-243

DOI

10.5603/PiAP.2016.0029

Pubmed

27435350

Bibliographic record

Pneumonol Alergol Pol 2016;84(4):232-243.

Keywords

allergic asthma
omalizumab
eosinophilic inflammation
eosinophils

Authors

Izabela Kupryś-Lipińska
Katarzyna Molińska
Piotr Kuna

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