open access

Vol 83, No 5 (2015)
REVIEWS
Submitted: 2015-09-08
Get Citation

The etiology of lower respiratory tract infections in people with diabetes

Renata Barbara Klekotka, Elżbieta Mizgała, Wojciech Król
DOI: 10.5603/PiAP.2015.0065
·
Pneumonol Alergol Pol 2015;83(5):401-408.

open access

Vol 83, No 5 (2015)
REVIEWS
Submitted: 2015-09-08

Abstract

Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) are likely to develop many types of infections, which affect the transport of glucose into tissues. Diabetes increases the susceptibility to different kinds of respiratory infections, is often identified as an independent risk factor for developing lower respiratory tract infections. Pulmonary infections caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Staphylococcus aureus, gram-negative bacteria and fungi may occur with an increased frequency, whereas infections due to Streptococcus pneumonia or influenza virus may be associated with increased morbidity and mortality. During lung infection, there are changes in the local and ciliary epithelial lining. Increased susceptibility to pneumococcal infection by people with diabetes is the result of reduced defense capability of antibodies to protein antigens. The relationship between diabetes and pulmonary tuberculosis is well known, and the incidence of tuberculosis in diabetic individuals is 4−5 times greater than among the non-diabetic population. It is thought that malfunction of monocytes in patients with diabetes may contribute to the increased susceptibility to tuberculosis and/or a worse prognosis. Hospitalization of patients with diabetes due to influenza virus or flu-like infections is up to 6 times more likely to occur compared to healthy individuals, also diabetic patients are more likely to be hospitalized due to infection complications. Immunization with influenza and anti-pneumococcal vaccines is recommended to reduce hospitalizations, deaths, and medical expenses. Diabetes, especially the uncontrolled one, predisposes to fungal infection, the most common candidiasis and mucormycosis.

Abstract

Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) are likely to develop many types of infections, which affect the transport of glucose into tissues. Diabetes increases the susceptibility to different kinds of respiratory infections, is often identified as an independent risk factor for developing lower respiratory tract infections. Pulmonary infections caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Staphylococcus aureus, gram-negative bacteria and fungi may occur with an increased frequency, whereas infections due to Streptococcus pneumonia or influenza virus may be associated with increased morbidity and mortality. During lung infection, there are changes in the local and ciliary epithelial lining. Increased susceptibility to pneumococcal infection by people with diabetes is the result of reduced defense capability of antibodies to protein antigens. The relationship between diabetes and pulmonary tuberculosis is well known, and the incidence of tuberculosis in diabetic individuals is 4−5 times greater than among the non-diabetic population. It is thought that malfunction of monocytes in patients with diabetes may contribute to the increased susceptibility to tuberculosis and/or a worse prognosis. Hospitalization of patients with diabetes due to influenza virus or flu-like infections is up to 6 times more likely to occur compared to healthy individuals, also diabetic patients are more likely to be hospitalized due to infection complications. Immunization with influenza and anti-pneumococcal vaccines is recommended to reduce hospitalizations, deaths, and medical expenses. Diabetes, especially the uncontrolled one, predisposes to fungal infection, the most common candidiasis and mucormycosis.

Get Citation

Keywords

diabetes mellitus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, influenza, tuberculosis, mycosis

About this article
Title

The etiology of lower respiratory tract infections in people with diabetes

Journal

Advances in Respiratory Medicine

Issue

Vol 83, No 5 (2015)

Pages

401-408

DOI

10.5603/PiAP.2015.0065

Bibliographic record

Pneumonol Alergol Pol 2015;83(5):401-408.

Keywords

diabetes mellitus
Streptococcus pneumoniae
influenza
tuberculosis
mycosis

Authors

Renata Barbara Klekotka
Elżbieta Mizgała
Wojciech Król

Important: This website uses cookies. More >>

The cookies allow us to identify your computer and find out details about your last visit. They remembering whether you've visited the site before, so that you remain logged in - or to help us work out how many new website visitors we get each month. Most internet browsers accept cookies automatically, but you can change the settings of your browser to erase cookies or prevent automatic acceptance if you prefer.

Czasopismo Pneumonologia i Alergologia Polska dostęne jest również w Ikamed - księgarnia medyczna

Wydawcą serwisu jest "Via Medica sp. z o.o." sp.k., ul. Świętokrzyska 73, 80–180 Gdańsk

tel.:+48 58 320 94 94, faks:+48 58 320 94 60, e-mail: viamedica@viamedica.pl