open access

Vol 82, No 6 (2014)
REVIEWS
Submitted: 2014-10-22
Accepted: 2014-10-22
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Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and cardiovascular diseases — ‘cardiopulmonary continuum’

Halina Batura-Gabryel, Marcin Grabicki
DOI: 10.5603/PiAP.2014.0078
·
Pneumonol Alergol Pol 2014;82(6):590-596.

open access

Vol 82, No 6 (2014)
REVIEWS
Submitted: 2014-10-22
Accepted: 2014-10-22

Abstract

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterised by persistent airflow limitation and extrapulmonary comorbidities, which contribute to the overall severity. Some risk factors, with tobacco smoking as the most serious one, lead to a chronic, systemic inflammation that plays the main role in the pathogenesis of COPD and comorbidities, including cardiovascular diseases (CVD). The course of COPD is diverse; it depends on pathologies in the respiratory system and on other organ dysfunctions. CVDs are the most commonly recognised comorbidities in COPD patients. The severity and natural course of COPD, as well as quality of the patient’s life, are influenced by them. CVDs are frequently the reason for hospitalisation and may lead to death. They are also an important prognostic factor. Comorbidities may prolong exacerbation of COPD. On the other hand, COPD is an independent risk factor of CVD. The prevalence of COPD is high in patients suffering from coronary artery disease, and airflow limitation is a major risk factor for chronic heart failure. These complex interactions between heart and lung can be denoted as ‘cardiopulmonary continuum’. These dependencies are not recognised in detail. Currently research is being done, which attempts to explain these complicated relations. For many years COPD and CVD were not connected. Today it is known that patients suffering from COPD must be provided comprehensive care. It is necessary to monitor the risk of CVD and their influence on the COPD course. Careful and proper treatment of all diseases is essential. An interdisciplinary team with good cooperation should prepare a plan of COPD treatment with simultaneous therapy of comorbidities.

Abstract

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterised by persistent airflow limitation and extrapulmonary comorbidities, which contribute to the overall severity. Some risk factors, with tobacco smoking as the most serious one, lead to a chronic, systemic inflammation that plays the main role in the pathogenesis of COPD and comorbidities, including cardiovascular diseases (CVD). The course of COPD is diverse; it depends on pathologies in the respiratory system and on other organ dysfunctions. CVDs are the most commonly recognised comorbidities in COPD patients. The severity and natural course of COPD, as well as quality of the patient’s life, are influenced by them. CVDs are frequently the reason for hospitalisation and may lead to death. They are also an important prognostic factor. Comorbidities may prolong exacerbation of COPD. On the other hand, COPD is an independent risk factor of CVD. The prevalence of COPD is high in patients suffering from coronary artery disease, and airflow limitation is a major risk factor for chronic heart failure. These complex interactions between heart and lung can be denoted as ‘cardiopulmonary continuum’. These dependencies are not recognised in detail. Currently research is being done, which attempts to explain these complicated relations. For many years COPD and CVD were not connected. Today it is known that patients suffering from COPD must be provided comprehensive care. It is necessary to monitor the risk of CVD and their influence on the COPD course. Careful and proper treatment of all diseases is essential. An interdisciplinary team with good cooperation should prepare a plan of COPD treatment with simultaneous therapy of comorbidities.

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Keywords

COPD, cardiovascular diseases, comorbidities

About this article
Title

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and cardiovascular diseases — ‘cardiopulmonary continuum’

Journal

Advances in Respiratory Medicine

Issue

Vol 82, No 6 (2014)

Pages

590-596

DOI

10.5603/PiAP.2014.0078

Bibliographic record

Pneumonol Alergol Pol 2014;82(6):590-596.

Keywords

COPD
cardiovascular diseases
comorbidities

Authors

Halina Batura-Gabryel
Marcin Grabicki

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