open access

Vol 82, No 2 (2014)
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Submitted: 2014-02-25
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MicroRNAs — new biomarkers of respiratory tract diseases

Maciej Kupczyk, Piotr Kuna
DOI: 10.5603/PiAP.2014.0024
·
Pneumonol Alergol Pol 2014;82(2):183-190.

open access

Vol 82, No 2 (2014)
REVIEWS
Submitted: 2014-02-25

Abstract

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) represent a group of small, non-coding RNA molecules that have been shown to regulate gene expression at the translational level by interfering with the 3’ untranslated region of messenger RNAs. Gene silencing through miRNA interference is one epigenetic mechanism impacting the development and homeostasis of the organism. MiRNAs are critical for regulation of several biological processes, cellular function, the cell cycle, differentiation and apoptosis. Deregulation of miRNAs was confirmed in several pathologies including cancer (in lung cancer among others), asthma, COPD, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. In mice models of asthma it has been found that increased levels of miR-21 and miR-126, and decreased levels of miR-672 and miR-143 are associated with regulation of cytokines involved in inflammation and remodeling, namely Il-13, Il-12, Il-10 and matrix metalloproteinase-12 (MMP-12). In lung cancer, overexpression of several miRNAs (miR-155, miR21, miR-17-92, miR221/222) and downregulation of let-7, miR-1, miR-29 and miR-126 has been found. It has been shown that serum miRNA profile may be regarded as a potential tool for early, non-invasive lung cancer diagnosis, and it can be used for chemotherapy sensitivity prediction and prognosis. MiRNAs seem to represent a promising goal in the search for new biomarkers and may be considered as an interesting target for therapeutical intervention.

Abstract

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) represent a group of small, non-coding RNA molecules that have been shown to regulate gene expression at the translational level by interfering with the 3’ untranslated region of messenger RNAs. Gene silencing through miRNA interference is one epigenetic mechanism impacting the development and homeostasis of the organism. MiRNAs are critical for regulation of several biological processes, cellular function, the cell cycle, differentiation and apoptosis. Deregulation of miRNAs was confirmed in several pathologies including cancer (in lung cancer among others), asthma, COPD, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. In mice models of asthma it has been found that increased levels of miR-21 and miR-126, and decreased levels of miR-672 and miR-143 are associated with regulation of cytokines involved in inflammation and remodeling, namely Il-13, Il-12, Il-10 and matrix metalloproteinase-12 (MMP-12). In lung cancer, overexpression of several miRNAs (miR-155, miR21, miR-17-92, miR221/222) and downregulation of let-7, miR-1, miR-29 and miR-126 has been found. It has been shown that serum miRNA profile may be regarded as a potential tool for early, non-invasive lung cancer diagnosis, and it can be used for chemotherapy sensitivity prediction and prognosis. MiRNAs seem to represent a promising goal in the search for new biomarkers and may be considered as an interesting target for therapeutical intervention.

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Keywords

microRNA, epigenetics, biomarkers, lung cancer, bronchial asthma

About this article
Title

MicroRNAs — new biomarkers of respiratory tract diseases

Journal

Advances in Respiratory Medicine

Issue

Vol 82, No 2 (2014)

Pages

183-190

DOI

10.5603/PiAP.2014.0024

Bibliographic record

Pneumonol Alergol Pol 2014;82(2):183-190.

Keywords

microRNA
epigenetics
biomarkers
lung cancer
bronchial asthma

Authors

Maciej Kupczyk
Piotr Kuna

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