open access

Vol 76, No 5 (2008)
REVIEWS
Published online: 2008-09-17
Submitted: 2013-02-22
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Bacterial immunostimulants - mechanism of action and clinical application in respiratory diseases

Adriana Roży, Joanna Chorostowska-Wynimko
Pneumonol Alergol Pol 2008;76(5):353-359.

open access

Vol 76, No 5 (2008)
REVIEWS
Published online: 2008-09-17
Submitted: 2013-02-22

Abstract

Immunity towards bacteria might be achieved as a result of natural processes following infection, or as a consequence of medical intervention including vaccination, administration of immunoglobulins or therapy with immunostimulants derived from bacteria.
Bacterial immunostimulants (ISs) containing bacterial lysate (OM-85 BV, LW 50020) or components of bacterial cells (ribosomal extracts) were shown to induce a non-specific response (i.e. intensification of phagocytosis) but also to orchestrate both cellular (B, T cell stimulation) and humoral responses (antibodies and proinflammatory cytokines production). Therefore, the duality of their immunomodulatory activity mimics or, to a certain extent, repeats the immune response evoked by the intrusion of a pathogen into the human body, which is initially non-specific, but subsequently becomes specific. However, their clinical efficacy in the prevention of respiratory tract infection (RTI) is still debated. This article reviews their mechanism of action, as well as the available clinical data, discussing the pros and cons of their use in the prevention of RITs in children and adults.

Abstract

Immunity towards bacteria might be achieved as a result of natural processes following infection, or as a consequence of medical intervention including vaccination, administration of immunoglobulins or therapy with immunostimulants derived from bacteria.
Bacterial immunostimulants (ISs) containing bacterial lysate (OM-85 BV, LW 50020) or components of bacterial cells (ribosomal extracts) were shown to induce a non-specific response (i.e. intensification of phagocytosis) but also to orchestrate both cellular (B, T cell stimulation) and humoral responses (antibodies and proinflammatory cytokines production). Therefore, the duality of their immunomodulatory activity mimics or, to a certain extent, repeats the immune response evoked by the intrusion of a pathogen into the human body, which is initially non-specific, but subsequently becomes specific. However, their clinical efficacy in the prevention of respiratory tract infection (RTI) is still debated. This article reviews their mechanism of action, as well as the available clinical data, discussing the pros and cons of their use in the prevention of RITs in children and adults.
Get Citation

Keywords

immunostimulation; bacterial lysate; ribosomal extracts; respiratory tract infections

About this article
Title

Bacterial immunostimulants - mechanism of action and clinical application in respiratory diseases

Journal

Advances in Respiratory Medicine

Issue

Vol 76, No 5 (2008)

Pages

353-359

Published online

2008-09-17

Bibliographic record

Pneumonol Alergol Pol 2008;76(5):353-359.

Keywords

immunostimulation
bacterial lysate
ribosomal extracts
respiratory tract infections

Authors

Adriana Roży
Joanna Chorostowska-Wynimko

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