open access

Vol 79, No 5 (2011)
REVIEWS
Published online: 2011-08-22
Submitted: 2013-02-22
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When does nicotine dependence begin?

Alicja Siemińska
Pneumonol Alergol Pol 2011;79(5):357-364.

open access

Vol 79, No 5 (2011)
REVIEWS
Published online: 2011-08-22
Submitted: 2013-02-22

Abstract

Tobacco use leads in short time to nicotine dependence. Mechanisms of this process remain still not quite understood, of importance is also a question: When does nicotine dependence begin? The present review reports commonly used definition of nicotine dependence (according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fourth Edition and International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Health Related Problems Tenth Revision), as well as its limited value in detecting first symptoms of this process. The review presents also the concept, which links the beginning of dependence with diminished autonomy (i.e., autonomy theory), results of studies supporting this concept, and neurophysiologic model of sensitization-homeostasis for nicotine dependence development. Further, despite phenomenon of sensitization has not been demonstrated in humans, results of animal studies arguing for sensitization-homeostasis theory are presented in the article. Usefulness of the Hooked on Nicotine Checklist in diagnosing first nicotine dependence symptoms in adolescents is also pointed out.
Pneumonol. Alergol. Pol. 2011; 79, 5: 357–364

Abstract

Tobacco use leads in short time to nicotine dependence. Mechanisms of this process remain still not quite understood, of importance is also a question: When does nicotine dependence begin? The present review reports commonly used definition of nicotine dependence (according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fourth Edition and International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Health Related Problems Tenth Revision), as well as its limited value in detecting first symptoms of this process. The review presents also the concept, which links the beginning of dependence with diminished autonomy (i.e., autonomy theory), results of studies supporting this concept, and neurophysiologic model of sensitization-homeostasis for nicotine dependence development. Further, despite phenomenon of sensitization has not been demonstrated in humans, results of animal studies arguing for sensitization-homeostasis theory are presented in the article. Usefulness of the Hooked on Nicotine Checklist in diagnosing first nicotine dependence symptoms in adolescents is also pointed out.
Pneumonol. Alergol. Pol. 2011; 79, 5: 357–364
Get Citation

Keywords

nicotine dependence; diagnostic tests; mechanisms of substance dependence; sensitization-homeostasis theory; tolerance of nicotine; abstinence symptoms; craving

About this article
Title

When does nicotine dependence begin?

Journal

Advances in Respiratory Medicine

Issue

Vol 79, No 5 (2011)

Pages

357-364

Published online

2011-08-22

Bibliographic record

Pneumonol Alergol Pol 2011;79(5):357-364.

Keywords

nicotine dependence
diagnostic tests
mechanisms of substance dependence
sensitization-homeostasis theory
tolerance of nicotine
abstinence symptoms
craving

Authors

Alicja Siemińska

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