Vol 52, No 3 (2021)
Original research article
Published online: 2021-06-28

open access

Page views 670
Article views/downloads 427
Get Citation

Connect on Social Media

Connect on Social Media

COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy among lymphoma patients in Poland

Bożena Brzuszek1, Paulina Zielińska1, Alicja Prochoń2, Wojciech Jurczak1
Acta Haematol Pol 2021;52(3):202-206.


Introduction: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has affected the health of the entire population. Neoplastic diseases of the immune system are associated with increased COVID-related mortality. Vaccination is the only effective way to reduce morbidity and mortality, yet vaccine hesitancy has been observed. The aim of this study was to assess attitudes towards vaccination among lymphoma patients and to identify vaccine hesitancy predictors.

Material and methods: The study was conducted on 280 patients with lymphoma who took part anonymously in a web-based survey prepared by the Pokonaj Chłoniaka Foundation. The survey assessed: attitude to and perception of COVID-19 vaccines, the perceived likelihood of COVID-19 infection, personal experiences with COVID-19, and demographic data.

Results: In our sample, almost one patient in three was vaccine-hesitant. The percentage was higher among patients living in the countryside, villages and smaller towns and in those not educated beyond high school level. The acceptance of vaccination increased with patient age. The high number of skeptical patients could be potentially dangerous, with regard to the  high COVID-related complications and mortality.

Conclusions: Clear and easily understood information on COVID vaccines can reduce the risk of COVID-related issues. This subject should be addressed in educational campaigns focused particularly on the identified groups of vaccination skeptics.

Article available in PDF format

View PDF Download PDF file


  1. Koronawirus: informacje i zalecenia. https://www.gov.pl/web/koronawirus (May 26, 2021).
  2. Omer SB, Salmon DA, Orenstein WA, et al. Vaccine refusal, mandatory immunization, and the risks of vaccine-preventable diseases. N Engl J Med. 2009; 360(19): 1981–1988.
  3. Larson HJ, Jarrett C, Schulz WS, et al. SAGE Working Group on Vaccine Hesitancy. Measuring vaccine hesitancy: the development of a survey tool. Vaccine. 2015; 33(34): 4165–4175.
  4. Kernéis S, Jacquet C, Bannay A, et al. Vaccine education of medical students: a nationwide cross-sectional survey. Am J Prev Med. 2017; 53(3): e97–e104.
  5. Liu C, Zhao Y, Okwan-Duodu D, et al. COVID-19 in cancer patients: risk, clinical features, and management. Cancer Biol Med. 2020; 17(3): 519–527.
  6. Liang W, Guan W, Chen R, et al. Cancer patients in SARS-CoV-2 infection: a nationwide analysis in China. Lancet Oncol. 2020; 21(3): 335–337.
  7. Guan WJ, Ni ZY, Hu Yu, et al. China Medical Treatment Expert Group for Covid-19. Clinical characteristics of coronavirus disease 2019 in China. N Engl J Med. 2020; 382(18): 1708–1720.
  8. Tian J, Yuan X, Xiao J, et al. Clinical characteristics and risk factors associated with COVID-19 disease severity in patients with cancer in Wuhan, China: a multicentre, retrospective, cohort study. Lancet Oncol. 2020; 21(7): 893–903.
  9. Kuderer NM, Choueiri TK, Shah DP, et al. COVID-19 and Cancer Consortium. Clinical impact of COVID-19 on patients with cancer (CCC19): a cohort study. Lancet. 2020; 395(10241): 1907–1918.
  10. Liang W, Liang H, Ou L, et al. China Medical Treatment Expert Group for COVID-19. Development and validation of a clinical risk score to predict the occurrence of critical illness in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. JAMA Intern Med. 2020; 180(8): 1081–1089.
  11. Dai M, Liu D, Liu M, et al. Patients with cancer appear more vulnerable to SARS-COV-2: a multi-center study during the COVID-19 outbreak. Cancer Discov. 2020: CD-20–0422.
  12. Lewandowska A, Rudzki G, Lewandowski T, et al. The problems and needs of patients diagnosed with cancer and their caregivers. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020; 18(1).
  13. Tralongo P, Pescarenico MG, Surbone A, et al. Physical needs of long-term cancer patients. Anticancer Res. 2017; 37(9): 4733–4746.
  14. Khoshnood Z, Dehghan M, Iranmanesh S, et al. Informational needs of patients with cancer: a qualitative content analysis. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2019; 20(2): 557–562.
  15. Barrière J, Gal J, Hoch B, et al. Acceptance of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination among French patients with cancer: a cross-sectional survey. Ann Oncol. 2021; 32(5): 673–674.
  16. Brodziak A, Sigorski D, Osmola M, et al. Attitudes of patients with cancer towards vaccinations-results of online survey with special focus on the vaccination against COVID-19. Vaccines (Basel). 2021; 9(5).
  17. Kelkar AH, Blake JA, Cherabuddi K, et al. Vaccine enthusiasm and hesitancy in cancer patients and the impact of a webinar. Healthcare (Basel). 2021; 9(3).
  18. Soares P, Rocha JV, Moniz M, et al. Factors associated with COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy. Vaccines (Basel). 2021; 9(3).
  19. Passamonti F, Cattaneo C, Arcaini L, et al. Clinical characteristics and risk factors associated with COVID-19 severity in patients with haematological malignancies in Italy: a retrospective, multicentre, cohort study. Lancet Haematol. 2020; 7(10): 737–745.
  20. Schaffer DeRoo S, Pudalov NJ, Fu LY. Planning for a COVID-19 vaccination program. JAMA. 2020; 323(24): 2458–2459.