English Polski
Vol 22, No 4 (2016)
Review paper
Published online: 2017-03-14

open access

Page views 1395
Article views/downloads 1364
Get Citation

Connect on Social Media

Connect on Social Media

Vascular changes in autoimmunological connective tissue diseases

Elzbieta Szymanska, Marta Wieczorek, Zuzanna Lagun, Aleksandra Malewska, Marek Roszkiewicz, Irena Walecka
Acta Angiologica 2016;22(4):172-176.


Vascular complications due to systemic connective tissue diseases pose a very difficult clinical problem. Due to the nature and location of the lesions, they very often prevent revascularization procedures and the conservative treatment is usually insufficient, which leads to a growth in the degree of ischemia and the need to amputate the limb. The authors clearly show the clinical picture of the most common diseases in this group — systemic lupus erythomatosus, systemic scleroderma, dermatomyositis, mixed connective tissue disease and Sjögren’s syndrome.

Article available in PDF format

View PDF Download PDF file


  1. Bologna JL, Joriyyo JL, Schaffer JV. Dermatology. Third Edition Chapter. 2012; 7: 603–614.
  2. Hildebrand B; Chief Editor: Herbert S Diamond, MD. Undifferentiated Connective-Tissue Disease. Medscape. http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/334482-overview (16.04.2015).
  3. Chifflot H, Fautrel B, Sordet C, et al. Incidence and prevalence of systemic sclerosis: a systematic literature review. Semin Arthritis Rheum. 2008; 37(4): 223–235.
  4. Yamamoto T, Eckes B, Krieg T. Effect of interleukin-10 on the gene expression of type I collagen, fibronectin, and decorin in human skin fibroblasts: differential regulation by transforming growth factor-beta and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2001; 281(1): 200–209.
  5. Eckes B, Mauch C, Hüppe G, et al. Control of fibrosis in systemic scleroderma. J Invest Dermatol. 1993; 100(1): 92S–96S.
  6. Szymańska E, Maj M, Rudnicka L. Twardzina układowa — przebieg kliniczny i możliwości terapeutyczne. Przegl Lek. 2005; 62: 1538–1541.
  7. Sicińska J, Szymańska E, Rudnicka L. Długotrwała terapia prostaglandyną E1 zmniejsza stwardnienia u pacjentów z twardziną układową — opis dwóch przypadków. Med Biol Sci. 2005; 19: 115–117.
  8. Sicińska J, Rudnicka L. Choroba Raynauda i objaw Raynauda w przebiegu kolagenoz. Pol Arch Med Wewn. 2002; 108: 1011–1022.
  9. Poormoghim H, Lucas M, Fertig N, et al. Systemic sclerosis sine scleroderma: demographic, clinical, and serologic features and survival in forty-eight patients. Arthritis Rheum. 2000; 43(2): 444–451.
  10. Chung WS, Lin CL, Sung FC, et al. Systemic sclerosis increases the risks of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary thromboembolism: a nationwide cohort study. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2014; 53(9): 1639–1645.
  11. Rahman A, Isenberg DA. Systemic lupus erythematosus. N Engl J Med. 2008; 358(9): 929–939.
  12. Petri M, Orbai AM, Alarcón GS, et al. Derivation and validation of the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics classification criteria for systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum. 2012; 64(8): 2677–2686.
  13. LeRoy EC, Black C, Fleischmajer R, et al. Scleroderma (systemic sclerosis): classification, subsets and pathogenesis. J Rheumatol. 1988; 15(2): 202–205.
  14. Black CM. Scleroderma--clinical aspects. J Intern Med. 1993; 234(2): 115–118.
  15. Wakata N, Kurihara T, Saito E, et al. Polymyositis and dermatomyositis associated with malignancy: a 30-year retrospective study. Int J Dermatol. 2002; 41(11): 729–734.
  16. Sharma A, Dhooria A, Aggarwal A, et al. Connective Tissue Disorder-Associated Vasculitis. Current Rheumatology Reports. 2016; 18(6): 1–6.
  17. Frech TM, Shanmugam VK, Shah AA, et al. Treatment of early diffuse systemic sclerosis skin disease. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2013; 31(2 Suppl 76): 166–171.
  18. Prete M, Fatone MC, Favoino E, et al. Raynaud's phenomenon: from molecular pathogenesis to therapy. Autoimmun Rev. 2014; 13(6): 655–667.
  19. Denton CP, Hughes M, Gak N, et al. BSR and BHPR Standards, Guidelines and Audit Working Group. BSR and BHPR guideline for the treatment of systemic sclerosis. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2016; 55(10): 1906–1910.
  20. Sampaio-Barros PD, Zimmermann AF, Müller Cd, et al. Systemic Sclerosis Commission of the Brazilian Society of Rheumatology. Recommendations for the management and treatment of systemic sclerosis. Rev Bras Reumatol. 2013; 53(3): 258–275.
  21. Kowal-Bielecka O, Kuryliszyn-Moskal A. Guidelines/recommendations Systemic sclerosis. Reumatologia. 2016(Suppl 1): 51–55.
  22. Lasierra-Cirujeda J, Coronel P, Aza Mj, et al. Use of sulodexide in patients with peripheral vascular disease. J Blood Med. 2010; 1: 105–114.
  23. Coccheri S, Mannello F. Development and use of sulodexide in vascular diseases: implications for treatment. Drug Des Devel Ther. 2013; 8: 49–65.
  24. Vitiello M, Abuchar A, Santana N, et al. An Update on the Treatment of the Cutaneous Manifestations of Systemic Sclerosis: The Dermatologist's Point of View. J Clin Aesthet Dermatol. 2012; 5(7): 33–43.